EVOLUTION OF WORLDWIDE VISUALLY BASED REPRESENTATIONAL STANDARDS AND TECHNIQUES IN GEOLOGIC MAPPING AND FIELD METHODS SINCE 1817
Brian Allen Campbell, Elizabeth City State University, Department of Geologic, Environmental and Marine Sciences, Elizabeth City, NC, USA
This study explores the evolution of geologic mapping standards and techniques. The hypothesis presented is that field data collection methods and mapping standards (colors, symbols) used for recording and representation of geologic data have not changed since the first standard set150 years ago. Geologic mapping literature since the inception of the first mapping standards in 1817 was collected. Maps (n=28) and field journals (n=16) were obtained from personal collections held at Elizabeth City State University . Qualitative data analysis consisted of four parts: 1) side by side visual comparisons of maps, 2) written field methods review, 3) emerging technologies infusion, 4) counting emerging geologic disciplines. Results of data analysis indicate: 1) standards governing geological mapping products have remained constant (28/28,100%) the past 150 years, except for color scheme variation and new geologic symbols, 2) geological mapping field techniques have remained consistent since mapping standardization except for introduction technically based tools and procedures, 3) introduction of emerging technologies have allowed for long range mapping and monitoring of remote areas and landforms, 4) new fields of study, i.e., planetary geology, GIS imaging, have emerged in association with advancing technologies. As a result of this consistency in method and product, a comprehensive world wide approach to geology has emerged with a dynamic system of standards that allow adaptations of emerging technologies in current and new fields. Recommendations for further study include: classifying field mapping techniques from cultural regions prior to 1817, examination of terrestrial mapping standards on Earth and mapping planetary geology mapping
Locating Geologic References Within the Oral Traditions of Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest
Brian Campbell department of Geological Environmental and Marine Sciences Elizabeth City State University, Elizabeth city, NC USA
Verona Beckett department of language literature and communications Elizabeth City State University Elizabeth city, NC USA
Jessica Brackett department of sociology Elizabeth City State University Elizabeth city, NC USA
The oral histories of tribal culture were for many years the only way a way of education and record keeping for the emerging cultures. In hopes of preserving the knowledge held within these dying mythologies, this study examines the degree of observational geologic information that can be extracted from the oral histories of the Indian cultures historically based out of the Pacific Northwest. Oral histories were collected from printed and electronic sources. Accumulated histories were analyzed to identify the amount and usefulness of qualitative data each contained. The analysis found that the depiction of natural occurrences through the actions of the supernatural entities showed an understanding of the more visible geologic processes; however the more complex geologic theories were shrouded in the superstitions of the culture. Though, the myth examined contained little data on the acting forces within nature, the descriptions of events showed aptitude for observation and an understanding of the elementary geologic concepts.
PROFILING WOMEN IN TERRORISM
Frances Lynn Saunders and Brian Campbell, Elizabeth City State University, Department of Geologic environ mental and marine sciences
The involvement of women in terrorism has increased in recent history for their involvement has created new difficulties concerning the development of profiles by which to screen possible suspects. These difficulties arise from the women's ability to disguise their origins and the added ability to conceal bombs within personal belongings. The purpose of this study is to provide an in-depth look into the motives and methods related to recent terrorist attacks perpetrated by female assailants, and to give some perspective as to the unpredictable nature of terrorism as a whole. Recent articles relating to these terrorist acts were found via the internet on major news sites and archived periodicals. Interviews were conducted with professionals and colleagues regarding the psychological stability of these female attackers. The diversity of the subject's background makes it impossible to attribute a single profile to the women involved in these attacks. Terrorism is a complex problem in which the world as a whole is at risk for any type of attack from any section of the populace. To counter the problem effectively it is necessary to view the world from eyes outside its culture setting aside stereotypes and traditional misconceptions.