Emma C. Reeves 1
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Summer Intern with Center for Remote Sensing of Ice Sheets in Ocean, Marine, and Polar Science at Elizabeth City State University
Finding mass influx along the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream using radar echograms

Mentors: Dr. Sridhar Anandakrishnan; Peter Burkett

The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is one of the largest ice sheets on Earth. Movement of large volumes of ice from stable interior regions to rapidly flowing, calving, or melting margins of this ice sheet can have a significant impact on sea level. The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is an unusual ice stream that extends farther inland than any stream on the GIS. NEGIS is widening downglacier due to an influx of ice across its shear margins. The margins of NEGIS are underlain by de-watered zones that restrict the volume of entering ice and maintain the stream’s relative stability. Removal of these restricting bands could lead to a major influx of ice into NEGIS and a significant drawdown of GIS. Through the use of airborne RADAR, we develop a method to quantify the ice-volume influx across the stream’s lateral shear margins. These constraints on ice-volume influx establish a baseline for future studies interested in monitoring NEGIS’ margins and understanding its stability.

Summer Intern with Watershed Watch Program
Determination of an Empricial Model Relating Canopy Cover to NDVI Values in the Pasquotank Watershed, NC


Mentor: Dr. Stephen Hale

The Pasquotank watershed of North Carolina is a large region with many areas of robust vegetation and wildlife. Remotely sensed data gathered by Landsat 7 provides spectral data that tells about the type and relative density of vegetation in an area. This study attempts to quantify the relationship between deciduous canopy cover and NDVI values gathered by Landsat. This proposed relationship could be a valuable tool in tracking forest density changes year to year along with providing researchers with a way to quantify tree coverage of a local region using only remotely sensed spectral intensity values. By gathering and analyzing canopy cover data and correlating these numbers with NDVI values, we developed a model of canopy coverage vs. NDVI values with a coefficient of determination of .835.

Undergraduate Intern at Hamline University, MN
Current correlation from dual field emission tips

Mentor: Dr. Kevin Stanley

In this study, an 18mm Tungsten wire with a chemically etched tip on each end was mounted in high vacuum and connected to a voltage output (2-3kV) to achieve cold field emission. The resulting field emission currents displayed a high level of noise. Current noise is common in field emission but can have many causes, including molecular tip surface contamination and interchamber events. We compared emission currents from both tips looking for correlation. Electrons with energies significantly below the Fermi level may have wavefunctions that are coherent over the entire short length of wire in our experiment. It is conceivable that upon field emission these electrons are in a superposition state that represents an electron tunneling through both ends of the wire. The existence of such mixed states would lead to a correlation between the currents of each tip. The emission wire runs perpendicular to and protrudes through a hole in a shielding disk. Without this disk, a significant portion of the current from one would be detected at the opposite detector. The emission currents are simultaneously collected and sent to separate electrometers. Analysis of left- and right-tip currents showed correlations between 0.39 and 0.8. Multiple causes are examined by likelihood, in order to determine if mixed state electron emission is observable. Tip contamination and interchamber reflection are the two most likely causes of correlation. Steps were taken to reduce the impact of these two correlation sources. Given the multiple causes of current correlation and the lack of restriction on these causes, we cannot currently conclude that observed current correlation was due to the emission of mixed state electrons. Further research will include improving the emission process and continued current collection and evaluation.

Summer Intern at Hamline University, MN
C++ programming of Monte Carlo simulations

Mentor: Dr. JiaJia Dong

Over the summer, I gained an understanding of the C++ programming language and Monte Carlo simulations, applying that knowledge to the creation of a simple traffic simulation project. I worked with my mentor via Skype to meet learning progress deadlines. When the program was completed and run, I learned about the statistically likely outcomes to check its reliability. The results were as expected and I presented my process in a department-wide poster session.